England And India
England and India have had a long and complicated relationship. Since the 1600s, England has been doing everything they could to get their hands on India’s resources. This paper will take a look at how the initial colonization, the revolt and transfer of power, and WWI, WWII, and India's independence as a series of events played a role in the understanding of these two countries' colonization timelines. They went about this from trading to stealing and the aftermath. Some important events in this timeline are: The East India Company is formed in 1600. In 1757, the War of Plassey happened. In 1877, Queen Victoria became the Empress of India. In 1939, World War II broke out with Germany’s invasion of Poland. And in 1947, India and Pakistan became self-governing.
When colonization was at its peak, European powers were rushing to colonize every piece of land in sight. One of them being the territories in what is now India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. After the Portuguese started setting up on the coasts of India to export items, Britain and France were close behind. Britain decided to send the East India Company to colonize for them, who happily obliged. The Company was government controlled and created purely to monopolize on the spice trade. The East India Company started by negotiating with locals for control and got increasingly more violent and demanding when necessary, recruiting an army as they went. Indian disapproval of the company slowly built, and burst out in the 1857 rebellion. Starting with one soldier, more and more rebelled and killed British officers. By the end of the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion, the East India Company was removed from rule and Britain took over directly. When England took over the rule of India, they continued to use that power as a monopoly on the resources. When England got involved in WWI, they used Indian money and troops to help fight. When the war ended, they were unwilling to give up any power over the country. When Europe broke out in fighting again in WWII, again indian resources and lives were used to help England in their fight. It wasn’t until after WWII and a lot of advocating for itself that India won its independence in 1947.
The British imperialism was able to deal with things more realistically than other colonial powers. Their motivation came from economics and not the Christian religions and beliefs and because of this, the British only westernized India to a limited degree. As far as the mass of the population was concerned, colonial rule brought few significant changes. The British educational effort was very limited. There were no major changes in village society, in the caste system, the position of untouchables, the joint family system, or in production techniques in farming.
England was the largest empire in modern history and held on to their power as long as possible. They colonized all around the world, taking advantage of the people who were already there. India was one of those colonies for about 200 years. Colonization had a large impact on both the countries themselves and their relationship. Britain drained as much of India’s resources as they could including using the indian population as bodies for european wars. India finally gained independence in 1947 but only after a large loss of life and resources. Today India and England’s relationship holds steady but has a very long history behind it.
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Why Freedom Matters
Rowan McCrea and Mathew Paul
Tibet is an autonomous region of China. It occupies a vast area of plateaus and mountains in Central Asia, including Mount Everest. Tibet developed a distinct culture due to its geography. While influenced by neighboring cultures from China, India, and Nepal, the Himalayan region's remoteness has preserved distinct local cultures and practices. Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and occupies about one-third of the island of Great Britain. Though we often think of Great Britain and its culture as dominated by England, Scottish people have lived in the region long before English invasion and developed a rich culture.
Tibet and Scotland are both controlled by other countries, China and England respectively. Both countries share a long history of cultural suppression, where they differ, is in the present. Scotland is free to express their culture, while it’s still being actively suppressed in Tibet (by China). Both Tibet and Scotland are seeking freedom, but this looks very different for each country. Tibet is still fighting for their freedom of speech and expression, while Scotland hopes for more legislative and political control.
Scotland and Tibet both have long histories of independence. They both had their own governments, languages, and cultural norms. However, they are both ruled by countries that have historically disregarded this. China and England do not have the best interest of these countries in mind. In Tibet, this can be seen in the ongoing violent cultural suppression and human rights abuse. China wants cultural hegemony, while Tibet finds great importance in its unique culture and religious practices. In Scotland, we can see this in how the UK’s decisions negatively impact their economy, like deciding to leave the EU (which was an unpopular decision in Scotland, or Boris Johnson’s disastrous approach to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Scotland and Tibet are both examples of violent cultural suppression. Whether it’s in history or in the present, cultural suppression has landed a catastrophic blow on both cultures. Although Scots Gaelic and the tartan are no longer outlawed in Scotland, Scots Gaelic is nearly a dead language, and kilts are no longer the #1 garment of choice for hot or cold weather. Although Tibet is generally more well known as an important cultural location, that does not change the fact that Tibet is being violently suppressed by China. Abducting the Panchen Lama, attempted regulation of Tibetan religious leaders, suppression of revolt via demographic shift, and land appropriation are just a few accusations being levied on China.
Ancient Scotland was focused on the freedom of individuals in many aspects of life, in addition to having a strong warrior culture. As a result, England’s rule over Scotland was the instigating action for countless bloody conflicts. In staggering contrast, Tibet is a culture committed to nonviolence, resulting in many instances of cultural suppression that cannot be resisted with raised arms. Tibet wants to be free from China because Tibetan culture is being repeatedly damaged in terms of both the people and the ideals. While Tibet wants to be free from China for clear religious and cultural reasons, Scotland’s motives for independence are more along the lines of legislative and economic freedom. However, there's another reason for Scotland wanting independence; Scotland is empathetic toward Tibet due to its long history of violent cultural suppression and wants to set a precedent for Tibet to gain independence as well, like a line of dominos. The 14th Dalai Lama was accepted for the 5th time as a guest in Scotland in 2012. His visit to Edinburgh served as inspiration for both the people of Scotland and the Dalai Lama.
Both of these countries show a long and ongoing fight for freedom. They are emblematic of the value we find in cultural and national identity, especially when it is being taken away. They both find strength in their traditions and cultural practices, which manifests itself in many facets of life. The path to freedom for these countries is hard, and for Tibet practically impossible; but that does not mean their struggles should be overlooked, or that their dominant countries shouldn’t be expected to rule in these countries' best interest.
Italy and Japan have had a positive relationship for almost all of time with no major conflicts coming up. They’ve allied in both World Wars and supported each other while trying to pass various international accords. While Italy and Japan seem like they have no similarities, they share a unique time in history where fascist governments ruled them both. Fascism is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society. Throughout the paper, we will discuss how fascism in Italy and Japan can be looked at from many different viewpoints, including the government, the military, and the education system. In order to compare the two countries, it is important to first look at both of their government structures. Seeing how both fascist governments rose to power will help see how Italy and Japan were in similar situations. The military strategy and actions changed for both Italy and Japan. They became much more imperialistic which caused many battles and invasions. Also, both governments had to spread their beliefs through the education system. Looking at youth groups, sports leagues, and other organizations will show how both countries were able to distribute their ideas to their people. Italy and Japan both went through a period of fascism which can be analyzed through the education system, the military, and the government.
During the Paris Peace Conference after WWI, the Japanese attempted to pass the Racial Equality Clause, which failed, and Italy was not granted all of the land they were promised in the Treaty of London. Following this, both nations felt as if they’d been betrayed by the rest of the world. In Japan, this led to a strong rise in nationalism and a hatred for the western world which culminated in the election of Hirohito as emperor. In Italy, this led to a rise of fascist militias led by Benito Mussolini. Over the next 3 years, these militias led various attacks across Italy until the King of Italy appointed Mussolini as the prime minister in 1922. He used his new position to quickly appoint fascist party members to every branch of government, and used the rest of his time in office to dismantle constitutional safeguards and the constitution itself, allowing him complete control of the country. After their defeat at the end of WWII, both governments were overturned and replaced.
Under the rule of fascist governments, both nations led intense imperialistic campaigns. In 1923, Mussolini’s first year as prime minister, Italy invaded the island of Corfu in response to the murder of four Italian citizens. Italy continued to build its military power in Libya until 1935 when they invaded Ethiopia. In 1936, Italy had taken control of the country and proclaimed the King the Emperor of Ethiopia. In 1939, Italy invaded Albania and took control of the country. In WWII, Italy allied with Germany and aided in their various military campaigns. The Japanese also led many campaigns starting with the invasion of Manchuria in 1931. The Japanese used this invasion to continue their conquest until they had fully occupied Indochina. During the war, Japan had also gained control of the Philippines, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, and Burma. Japan had also proven effective at controlling allied communications with Australia and had won naval battles against the British Royal Navy. On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in response to the American’s rejection of a Japanese request to meet with President Roosevelt. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, America entered the war and Japan surrendered in 1945, shortly before the end of the war. Following the war, both Italy and Japan lost the majority of their colonial gains.
Fascist ideologies were spread to younger generations through the education system. The fascist governments wanted complete control of what the youth was going to think. The first minister of education in Italy, Giovanni Gentile, recommended that “education policy should focus on indoctrination of students into Fascism and to educate youth to respect and be obedient to authority.” In addition to being members of the National Fascist Party, school teachers had to take an oath, promising to be loyal to fascist ideas. In order to completely take command of the education system, the fascist government took control of all textbooks. After completing their goal of creating a low illiteracy and dropout rate, they then copied Nazi Germany in trying to make all Italians physically healthy. This want for fit citizens led to the creation of sports leagues. These leagues were meant “to produce great athletes who will achieve great sport successes for the nation and Fascism.” There were also youth groups and other organizations that the government would set up to raise public opinion and further indoctrinate the people. Fascist Japan promoted physical activity as well. They militarized school athletics in order to train future soldiers. These physical activities included many military drills and games. In addition, all students had to train themselves in judo or kendo, which would “mold the ideal of Bushido (samurai spirit), which could serve for the patriotic spirit and to help understand the origin of the nation and the dignity of the national constitution. The education system highlighted obedience and loyalty to the Emperor, self-sacrifice, and Nationalism. By using the education system to spread their beliefs, fascism was able to grow in both Italy and Japan, preparing future generations to continue this ultranationalistic viewpoint.
While the rise of fascism was different for Italy and Japan, they were both rooted in the feeling that they had been betrayed by the rest of the allied world. The refusal to grant Italy the land that it had been promised years earlier in the Treaty of London and the rejection of the racial equality clause made both nations feel like the option of peace had been exhausted and that violence was the only option remaining. Both governments were replaced by leaders who embodied that national anger and attempted to suppress any opposition. Their military campaigns were imperialistic and focused on conquering as much territory as possible. Both education systems forced their students to be devoted to fascism, preparing future generations with that same ideology. This joint feeling shows how two countries who are so disconnected by geography, can be so politically connected.